Archive for November, 2011

The contribution of ordinary portland cement (OPC) production worldwide to greenhouse gas emissions is estimated to be approximately 1.35 billion tons annually or approximately 7% of the total greenhouse gas emissions to the earth’s atmosphere. Also, it has been reported that many concrete structures, especially those built in corrosive environments, start to deteriorate after 20 to 30 years, even though they have been designed for more than 50 years of service life.

Source: Academia.edu

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PowerPile Expanding Polymer Pillar

PowerPile Expanding Polymer Pillar

The most significant benefit for environment is the PowerPile method’s ability to solve the settlement problem economically, which was impossible with traditional methods. Repair of houses on thick clay areas would have been more expensive than the value of house and therefore the buildings were unrepairable and unlivable house is always a environmental problem.

Firm and elastic geopolymer was tested on test sites and followed in three and five year time frames. The polymer didn’t change it shape, although some color variation were noticed. When analyzing water dissolving there were no significant remnants in water.

Hardened geopolymer is rigid and maintains its charasteristics in water with normal detergents, brines, acids or bases. Only very strong acids, like concentrated nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid might damage geopolymer. Polymer doesn’t react with mold or fungus nor does it decay or change it shape. Insects and rodents don’t eat geopolymer.

When compared to traditional piling worksite PowerPile worksite environmental effect is minimal. The time used is very short, installation equipment lighter and traffic minimal. The process is dustless and silent.

Source: PowerPile

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Uretek’s worldwide experience in the maintenance of roads, highways and freeways ensures fast unobtrusive and low cost solutions for the remediation of problems arising from deteriorated sub-base.

Uretek strengthens soil, fills voids, re-seals the soil under culverts, reseals the soil around broken
culverts and pipes, and re-levels concrete in a fraction of the time taken by alternate methods—and we do it at times least inconvenient to road owners and users.

Uretek’s Worldwide Experience
The Uretek Method was invented in Finland in some 35 years ago, and is now found in 90 countries
around the world, including India.

Strengthen foundation ground
The Uretek Deep Injection process consolidates the ground and increases its bearing strength, resulting in long-term foundation support. Deep Injection is a permanent, fast and cost-effective
alternative to piling and underpinning.

Source: http://www.uretek.in/information/Uretek%20Information%20Sheet%20-%20Roads%20&%20Highways.pdf

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China is one of the big coal production countries as well as USA. It is of great benefit that coal gangues are very rich in kaolin and discarded as huge amount of pyramid-like piles over so many years. It is said the piles are nearly 1500 in number. The total amount is estimated 3.4 billion tons and is increasing at a rate of 1.7 billion tons per annum… Application of coal gangues to geopolymers in China, where Portland cement production is increasing at an enormous rate now, will reduce tremendous amount of carbon dioxide emissions.

Source: Google Books

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Our Materials and asset engineering team has expertise in construction materials performance, particularly concrete, and is able to assist at each stage of the life of an asset.

New-build services include durability design, structural analysis and specifications. During construction we can provide independent audits, thermal analysis and design of concrete mixes (including economic and sustainable high performance concrete). When the asset is in service we are able to undertake condition surveys, forensic engineering investigations and provide design and supervision of repairs.

Innovation is central to our services, including the durability design and specification for the steel fibre reinforced segments for the Gold Coast Desalination Project, the VSA project to develop low-carbon synthetic fibre reinforced geopolymer concrete, and assisting Humes to develop self-compacting concrete precast units.

Our GRANIT system is a unique tool for testing rock bolt integrity and has diverse applications in condition monitoring and asset management in the mining, construction and power industries. The system has been recently used to assess transverse stressing bars in bridge decks in Queensland, rock bolts supporting a coal conveyor tunnel in Canada and ground anchors securing a canopy over an ancient temple in Greece, to enable restoration work.

Source: Halcrow.com

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Dr. Erez Allouche, assistant professor of civil engineering at Louisiana Tech University and associate director of the Trenchless Technology Center, is conducting innovative research on geopolymer concrete and providing ways to use a waste byproduct from coal fired power plants and help curb carbon dioxide emissions.

Inorganic polymer concrete (geopolymer) is an emerging class of cementitious materials that utilize “fly ash”, one of the most abundant industrial by-products on earth, as a substitute for Portland cement, the most widely produced man-made material on earth.

Portland cement production is a major contributor to CO2 emissions as an estimated five to eight percent of all human-generated atmospheric CO2 worldwide comes from the concrete industry. Production of Portland cement is currently toping 2.6 billion tons per year worldwide and growing at 5 percent annually.

Geopolymer concrete has the potential to substantially curb CO2 emissions, produce a more durable infrastructure capable of design life measured in hundreds of years instead of tens, conserve hundreds of thousands of acres currently used for disposal of coal combustion products, and protect aquifers and surface bodies of fresh water via the elimination of fly ash disposal sites.

In comparison to ordinary Portland cement (OPC), geopolymer concrete (GPC) features greater corrosion resistance, substantially higher fire resistance (up to 2400° F), high compressive and tensile strengths, a rapid strength gain, and lower shrinkage.

Perhaps Geopolymer concrete’s greatest appeal is its life cycle greenhouse gas reduction potential; as much as 90% when compared with OPC.

Source: Civil Engineering News

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The challenge for the civil engineering community in the near future will be to realize structures in harmony with the concept of sustainable development, through the use of high performance materials of low environmental impact that are produced at reasonable cost. Geo-polymeric materials provide a route towards this objective. The main benefit of geo-polymeric cement is the reduction in environmental impact. Using lesser amounts of calcium-based raw materials, lower manufacturing temperature and lower amounts of fuel, result in reduced carbon dioxide emissions for geopolymer cement manufacture by up to 80%-90%, in comparison with Portland cement. This paper reviews geopolymer cement technology and presents preliminary results using activated Iranian natural pozzolans namely, taftan and Shahindej.

Source: Alkali Activation of Natural Pozzolan for Geopolymer Cement Production

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No one is sure why granite stones in Carnac, France weighing 100-350 tons were cut and placed in such unusual arrangement.

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Tihuanaco is estimated to be over 17,000 years old, perhaps the oldest city in the world. Nearby Puma Punku is a field of ancient stone ruins that defy explanation. The stones have been carved with machine-like precision into interlocking shapes. The stones are granite and diorite. Diorite is the second hardest stone, which means only diamond tipped tools could cut the stone. Some stones weigh over 800 tons. How were they carved and moved into position from 10 miles away?

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Here’s another example of ancient stonework that defies explanation. Ancient man cutting granite with the precision of today’s CNC machines (.002”). Was this done with simple hand tools? However it was done — whether carved stone or cast geopolymer — would be nearly impossible.

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